Makalah B.Inggris = Money

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Foreword

We say thanks  for guidance of Almighty God given to us all. Thanks to the guidance and grace given to us so we can resolve this paper properly in accordance with the appropriate time. Do not forget we are also grateful to the lecturers and colleagues who have helped in the preparation of this paper. We made this paper titled “Money” with a discussion of tenses and reading descriptions.

We made  this paper in such a way as to fulfill the task of English Education courses are guided by our professors  Dra. Effy Mulyasari, M.Pd. Furthermore this paper aims to hone our ability to understand tenses. For that, we hope that this paper can increase our insight to knowledge and learning.

 

 

Regards

            Drafting Team

Chapter I

Introduction

 

I.1 Background Issues

We are never far apart from the name or the money to meet the needs of daily life, to say the money has an important role in meeting the needs of life, and given that human needs are unlimited but the tool is limited to the fulfillment of human needs.
Money is a medium of exchange that applies now to all transactions either directly or indirectly. The existence of money provide an alternative transaction easier than barter more complex, inefficient, and less suitable for use in the modern economic system because it requires people who have the same desire to exchange and also the difficulty in determining value. Efficiency is obtained by using the money in the end will encourage trade and the division of labor which in turn increases productivity and prosperity

I.2 Problem Formulation

            1. The Meaning of Money

2. History of Money

3. How to Make Coin

4. The Function of Money

5. Advantage and Disadvantage

 

I.3 Function

1. Know what is the meaning of money
2. Know the history of the formation of the money
3. Know the functions of money

Chapter II

Money

 

II.1 The Meaning of Money

Money is any object or record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given socio-economic context or country. Money is historically an emergent market phenomena establishing a commodity money, but nearly all contemporary money systems are based on fiat money.Fiat money is without intrinsic use value as a physical commodity, and derives its value by being declared by a government to be legal tender, that is  it must be accepted as a form of payment within the boundaries of the country, for “all debts, public and private”.

The money supply of a country consists of currency (banknotes and coins) and bank money (the balance held in checking accounts and savings accounts). Bank money usually forms by far the largest part of the money supply.

II.2 History of money

History of coins extends from ancient times to the present, and is associated with economic history, the history of printing technology, the history shown by the image on the coin, and the history of collecting coins. Coins are still widely used for monetary purposes and others. All coins western history began with their discovery of some little time before or after 700 BC on the island of Aegina, or others according to Ephesians Lydia in 650 BC. since then, coins have the most universal manifestation money printing history coin Coins were first made ​​from scrap metal. ancient coins were produced through the process of hitting the hammer was on a landasan.Cina produced mainly cast coins, and it spread to Southeast Asia and Japan.

The history of money begins around 2500 years ago with the first minting of coinage in about the seventh to sixth century BC.Money is any clearly identifiable object of value that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts within a market or which is legal tender within a country.

Since ancient times people have swapped items of value either in the exchange of gifts or else in in markets where a commonly shared system of tokens is more convenient.

Many things have been exchanged in markets including, for example, livestock and sacks of cereal grain (from which the Shekel is derived) – things directly useful in themselves, but also sometimes merely attractive items such as cowry shells or beads were exchanged for more useful commodities. Precious metals from which early coins were made, fall into this second category.

Numismatics is the scientific study of money and its history in all its varied form

A. History of Coins in Asia

History of Coins in Asiaearliest currency in Asia is also the oldest currency in dunia.Koin invented several times independently of each other. Early coins of the Mediterranean region of the kingdom of Lydia, and now dated ca. 600 BC. Dates early coins of China and India is difficult and subject to debate.However, the first coins from China at least as old as the earliest Lydian coins and probably older, while the early coins of India seems to have appeared on the stage of pre-modern China berikutnya.koin always cast bronze or brass issue. This concept was later adopted by Japan, Korea and Annam (Vietnam), and is also affected areas in Asia Tenggara.Koin Lydian consists of discs or lump Electrum (natural gold / silver alloy), and step on both sides with the dead. This concept quickly spread to neighboring countries in the Greek cities of Asia Minor and the Aegean Sea, and eventually the entire Mediterranean. When Lydia was conquered by the Achaemenid Persian, Lydian coin production continued in the guise Siglos Darics silver and gold.Another part of the Persian mint coins only started when the conquest of Alexander the Great.

B. History of Coins Euro

Coins Indonesian Rupiah first circulated in 1951 and 1952. Although the rupiah currency has diicetak by the government of the Republic of Indonesia, but the shape is the paper, because the metal is still too scarce for the new government is formed. Due to high inflation in the late 1950s to the early 1960’s, no coins were issued after 1961, and the coins are still in circulation are not newly minted berharga.Rupiah an effort to reduce inflation in 1965. In 1971, the economy and inflation under the New Order regime to be stable, and re-circulated coin with a value of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 dollars, to 100 dollars plus two years later.Because of inflation, the value of the dollar coin there are now 25, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 rupess.

II.3  How To Make Coins

1. Melt the material that will become the coin. This can be copper or silver. The material   should be placed into a furnace and melted. Place the material on a flat surface so the    melted material will also be flat.

2. Roll the melted material through the roller machine that will press the material to the  desired thickness of the coin.

3. Blank the material. This means the coin material is placed under a machine and blanks, or coins with no markings, are pressed out. This process is very similar to that of a hole punching machine.

4. Edge the coins for smoothness and to remove any sharp or unshapely places. This   machine will also place calculated notches into the rim of the coin when this design is called for.

5. Stamp the coins. This is done by putting each coin in a press which places particular markings on both sides of the coin.

6. Inspect the coins for disfigurement or other imperfections that make the coin void. Throw the incorrect ones into another melting group. They can be used as a whole or parts of other coins so as to not waste materials.

II.4  The Function of Money

A. The Original Function

1) as a means of Exchange

2) as a means of calculating unit

B. The derivative Function

1) as a means of payment

2) as a pointing device prices

3) as a means of storing/saving

4) as a driving force of economic activity

5) as a mover and shaper of wealth

6) as a creator of employment

7) As a standard tool of taxpayer debt

8) as a commodity trade

II.5  Advantages and Disadvantages of Coins

A. The benefit or the excess coins are:

1) As a means of Exchange which is strong and long-lasting (long-term durability).

2) Easy to carry because it contains a large value in a small volume and easily stored without reducing the value (portability).

3) Easy exchange of goods.

4) The value does not change from time to time or stable (stability of value).

5) Number of insufficient corporate world (elasticity of supply).

6) Easy divided into smaller units without reducing the value (divisibility).

7) The quality is easily controlleds

B. Lack or weakness of the coins is:

1) Carry money with large amounts of metal will cause heavy loads.

2) When payment is made which are much inter-seller will add to the cost of transport  is quite large and contains a high risk.

3) Preparation of metal material limited, while the coin needs grew.

4) The value cannot be always being calculation quantitatively.

5) Gold content owned by every province is not the same that causes gold supplies are not the  same.

Chapter III

Tense

Tense General formula is as follows:

1 Present Simple Tense S + V1 + dll
2 Present Continuous Tense S + is, am, are + V-ing + dll
3 Present Perfect Tense S + have,has + V3 + dll
4 Present Perfect Continuous Tense S + have, has + been + V-ing + dll
5 Past Simple Tense S + V2 + dll
6 Past Continuous Tense S + was, were + V-ing + dll
7 Past Perfect Tense S + had + V3 + dll
8 Past Perfect Continuous Tense S + had + been + V-ing + dll
9 Future Simple Tense S + will + V1 + dll
10 Future Continuous Tense S + will + be + V-ing + dll
11 Future Perfect Tense S + will + have + V3 + dll
12 Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + will + have + been + V-ing + dll
13 Past Future Simple Tense S + would + V1 + dll
14 Past Future Continuous Tense S + would + be + V-ing + dll
15 Past Future Perfect Tense S + would + have + V3 + dll
16 Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + would + have + been + V-ing + dll

From reading the above we find some form tenses:

Past Simple Tense

Formula Positive :

Subjek +to be (was, were) + V2

Formula Negative :

Subjek + did + to be (was, were) + not + V1

Introgative :

Did + Subjek + V1 ?

Example : It was stamped with its value and perhaps

Chapter IV

Closing

Conclusion

Money is any object or record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given socio-economic context or country.

In general, money has a function as an intermediary for the exchange of goods with the goods, as well as to avoid trade by barter.

Bibliography

http://refiselransun.blogspot.com/2012/05/makalah-uang.html

http://t4m1n.blogspot.com/2011/02/sejarah-uang-logam-dan-pembuatannya.html

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